Who Proposed Theory of Chemical Evolution?


Vincent White

Chemical evolution is the theory that explains the origin of life on Earth. It suggests that life began as a result of chemical reactions that took place between organic molecules in the early Earth’s atmosphere. The theory was first proposed by a Russian biochemist named Alexander Oparin in 1924.

Alexander Oparin’s Life and Work

Alexander Oparin was born on March 2, 1894, in Uglich, Russia. He studied at Moscow State University, where he earned his doctorate in chemistry in 1918. After graduation, he worked as a professor of biochemistry at Moscow State University.

Oparin was interested in the origin of life and spent many years researching the topic. In 1924, he published a book titled “The Origin of Life,” which proposed his theory of chemical evolution. The book was a groundbreaking work that brought together ideas from various fields such as chemistry, biology, and geology.

The Theory of Chemical Evolution

Oparin’s theory of chemical evolution proposes that life originated from non-living matter through a series of chemical reactions. According to his theory, the early Earth’s atmosphere was rich in gases such as methane, ammonia, water vapor and carbon dioxide.

These gases would have been subjected to energy sources such as lightning strikes or ultraviolet radiation from the sun. This would have caused them to react and form more complex organic molecules such as amino acids and nucleotides.

Over time, these organic molecules could have combined to form larger molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. These larger molecules could then have formed structures called protocells – simple cell-like structures that could carry out basic metabolic functions.

Support for Oparin’s Theory

Although Oparin’s theory was initially met with skepticism, it has gained support over the years through various experiments and observations. In 1952, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted an experiment that simulated the early Earth’s atmosphere and showed that amino acids could be produced under those conditions.

In addition, the discovery of extremophiles – organisms that can survive in extreme environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents or acidic hot springs – has provided evidence for the idea that life can arise from non-living matter under certain conditions.


Alexander Oparin’s theory of chemical evolution remains a significant contribution to the field of biology. His idea that life originated from non-living matter through chemical processes has provided a framework for understanding how life may have begun on Earth.

Through his work, Oparin demonstrated the importance of interdisciplinary research and collaboration between different fields of science. Today, scientists continue to build upon his ideas and work towards a better understanding of the origins of life on our planet.