The father of modern theory of evolution is none other than Charles Darwin. Born in England in 1809, Darwin was a naturalist and biologist whose work on evolution revolutionized the way we understand the natural world.

Early Life and Education

Darwin grew up in a wealthy family and showed an early interest in natural history. He attended the University of Edinburgh to study medicine but ultimately dropped out due to his distaste for surgery. He then went on to study theology at the University of Cambridge, but it was during his time there that he became increasingly interested in science and natural history.

The Voyage of the Beagle

In 1831, Darwin embarked on a five-year voyage aboard the HMS Beagle as the ship’s naturalist. During this journey, Darwin collected a vast amount of specimens and recorded observations about the flora, fauna, and geology of every place they visited. It was during this voyage that he began to formulate his ideas about evolution.

The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

It wasn’t until many years after his voyage on the Beagle that Darwin published his groundbreaking book “On the Origin of Species” in 1859. In this book, he proposed his theory of evolution by natural selection, which suggested that species evolve over time through a process of random variation and selection based on survival and reproduction.

This theory challenged many prevailing religious beliefs about creationism and sparked intense debate among scientists and theologians alike.

Evidence for Evolution

Darwin’s theory was supported by a wealth of evidence he had collected during his travels as well as observations made by other scientists over time. Fossil records showed evidence of extinct species that were earlier forms of existing species. The discovery and study of DNA also provided further evidence for evolutionary relationships between species.


Charles Darwin’s work on evolution had a profound impact on the scientific community and our understanding of the natural world. His theories laid the foundation for modern evolutionary biology, and his ideas continue to shape scientific research in fields such as genetics, ecology, and conservation.

In conclusion, Charles Darwin is widely regarded as the father of modern theory of evolution. His groundbreaking work on natural selection and evolution has had a lasting impact on science and continues to inspire new discoveries and insights into the natural world.