Who Gave Theory of Social Solidarity?

Social solidarity is a concept that examines the cohesion and integration of individuals within a society. It explores how people come together and form bonds, creating a sense of belonging and unity. One prominent theorist who delved into the notion of social solidarity was Émile Durkheim.

The Contributions of Émile Durkheim

Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist who is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of sociology. He made significant contributions to the field, particularly in understanding social order and cohesion. Durkheim’s theory of social solidarity has become instrumental in comprehending the mechanisms that hold societies together.

Mechanical Solidarity

Durkheim distinguished between two types of social solidarity: mechanical and organic. Mechanical solidarity characterizes traditional, pre-industrial societies where individuals share similar values, beliefs, and activities.

In mechanical solidarity, individuals have a strong collective consciousness, which means they identify with their society as a whole rather than as unique individuals. Social norms are rigidly enforced to maintain order and conformity.

Organic Solidarity

In contrast to mechanical solidarity, organic solidarity characterizes modern industrial societies with complex divisions of labor. Individuality is emphasized, and people have diverse roles within society.

Organic solidarity stems from interdependence among individuals who rely on one another for different goods and services. Unlike mechanical solidarity, where people are bound by similarities, organic solidarity is based on mutual dependence.

Implications of Social Solidarity

Durkheim’s theory of social solidarity has far-reaching implications for understanding societal dynamics and the consequences of social integration. A society with strong social solidarity experiences stability, reduced crime rates, and a sense of collective purpose.

On the other hand, societies with weak or fragmented social solidarity may face challenges such as anomie (a breakdown in social norms) and alienation. These issues can lead to increased rates of deviant behavior and a lack of cohesion within the community.


Émile Durkheim’s theory of social solidarity provides valuable insights into how societies function and maintain order. By recognizing the differences between mechanical and organic solidarity, we can better understand the complexities of modern societies and work towards fostering stronger bonds among individuals.

Understanding social solidarity is crucial for sociologists, policymakers, and individuals alike as it contributes to our comprehension of societal harmony and the challenges that may arise when it is lacking.