Who Gave the Theory of Social Dualism?


Diego Sanchez

Who Gave the Theory of Social Dualism?

Social dualism is a theory that seeks to explain the existence of two distinct and opposing social classes within a society. The concept of social dualism has been explored by various sociologists and philosophers throughout history.

Émile Durkheim

One of the prominent figures in the development of social dualism theory is Émile Durkheim. Durkheim, a French sociologist, argued that society consists of two fundamental types of solidarity: mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity.

Mechanical solidarity refers to societies with a strong collective consciousness and limited division of labor, where individuals are bound together by shared beliefs and values. On the other hand, organic solidarity characterizes modern societies with a complex division of labor, where individuals are interdependent on one another for survival and cohesion.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx, a German philosopher, economist, and sociologist, also contributed to the theory of social dualism. Marx developed his theory based on the conflict between two primary social classes: the bourgeoisie (the ruling class) and the proletariat (the working class).

According to Marx, these two classes have inherently conflicting interests due to their different relationships with the means of production. He argued that this class struggle is at the core of societal development and change.

Max Weber

Max Weber, a German sociologist and political economist, provided further insights into social dualism. Weber emphasized the importance of social stratification in understanding social inequality.

He identified three dimensions along which individuals can be stratified: class (economic position), status (prestige or honor), and power (political influence). Weber’s framework acknowledges that individuals may occupy different positions in each of these dimensions, resulting in complex social hierarchies.


Social dualism has been a topic of interest for many sociologists and philosophers. Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber are just a few of the influential thinkers who have contributed to this theory. By understanding the dynamics between different social classes and the underlying structures that shape society, we gain valuable insights into the complexities of human interaction and social organization.