Social gender differences are a topic of much discussion and debate in the social sciences. Understanding the origins and implications of gender differences is important for creating a more just and equitable society. In this article, we’ll explore some of the theorists who have contributed to our understanding of social gender differences.

Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir was a French philosopher and writer whose work explored the role of women in society. In her book “The Second Sex”, she argued that gender is not a natural or biological category, but rather a social construct.

She believed that women were oppressed by men because they were seen as “other” or different from men. According to de Beauvoir, women are not born with certain qualities or traits that make them inferior to men; rather, these differences are socially constructed through cultural attitudes and stereotypes.

Judith Butler

Judith Butler is an American philosopher who has also contributed to our understanding of gender as a social construct. In her book “Gender Trouble”, she argued that gender is performed rather than innate.

This means that our ideas about what it means to be male or female are created through our actions and behaviors, rather than being predetermined by biology. Butler also emphasized the idea that gender is fluid and can change over time.

Nancy Chodorow

Nancy Chodorow is an American sociologist whose work has focused on the role of family dynamics in shaping gender identity. In her book “The Reproduction of Mothering”, she argued that the mother-child relationship plays a key role in shaping children’s sense of self and their ideas about gender roles. According to Chodorow, girls are more likely than boys to identify with their mothers because they share a common experience of being female.


These are just a few examples of the many theorists who have contributed to our understanding of social gender differences. By examining the ways in which gender is constructed and performed, we can begin to challenge stereotypes and create a more equitable society.