Philosophy is often referred to as the study of fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, and mind. It has been a significant area of study for centuries with its roots tracing back to ancient Greece and the works of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
However, it wasn’t until the 19th century that philosophy began to be defined as the science of science. This idea was first introduced by German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey in his work ‘Introduction to the Human Sciences’ published in 1883. Dilthey believed that philosophy should be considered a science because it employs a systematic approach to understanding reality.
Dilthey’s views were heavily influenced by German philosopher Immanuel Kant’s critical philosophy, which emphasized the role of reason in understanding reality. Kant believed that scientific knowledge is based on reason and empirical evidence rather than intuition or speculation. He argued that philosophical inquiries must be grounded in empirical observations and logical reasoning.
Dilthey expanded on Kant’s ideas by arguing that philosophy should be considered a separate discipline from natural sciences because it deals with human nature and experience rather than physical phenomena. He believed that philosophical inquiry involves understanding human experiences such as emotions, beliefs, and values.
Dilthey’s views were further developed by other philosophers such as Edmund Husserl who founded phenomenology – a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of conscious experience. Husserl argued that phenomenology is a science because it uses systematic methods to investigate subjective experiences.
In conclusion, Wilhelm Dilthey was the first philosopher who defined philosophy as the science of science in his work ‘Introduction to the Human Sciences’. He argued that philosophy should be considered a science because it employs systematic methods for understanding reality just like natural sciences do. Dilthey’s ideas have had a significant impact on modern philosophical inquiry and have led to the development of new branches such as phenomenology.