The Social Dominance Theory is a framework that explains how societal hierarchies are created and maintained. It was first introduced in the 1990s by two social psychologists, Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto.

Jim Sidanius is a professor of psychology and African American Studies at Harvard University. He is known for his research on intergroup relations, prejudice, and discrimination. Sidanius has authored numerous academic papers and books on these topics, including “Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression” co-authored with Felicia Pratto.

Felicia Pratto is a professor of psychology at the University of Connecticut. She has conducted extensive research on social dominance orientation, intergroup relations, and prejudice. Pratto has published several academic articles and books on these topics, including “Social Dominance Theory: Its Agenda and Method” co-authored with Jim Sidanius.

The Social Dominance Theory posits that societies are structured in a way that creates hierarchies based on group membership. These hierarchies are maintained through the use of social dominance behaviors such as discrimination, prejudice, and oppression.

According to the theory, there are two types of group hierarchies – age-based hierarchy and arbitrary-set hierarchy. Age-based hierarchy refers to the natural hierarchy that exists between generations. For example, older individuals hold more power in society than younger individuals due to their experience and knowledge.

Arbitrary-set hierarchy refers to a hierarchy that is created based on arbitrary criteria such as race or gender. These criteria have no inherent meaning but are given meaning by society through socialization processes.

To maintain these hierarchies, dominant groups use social dominance behaviors such as stereotyping, discrimination, and violence against subordinate groups.

The Social Dominance Theory has been used to explain various societal issues such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and religious intolerance. It has also been used to develop interventions aimed at reducing social dominance behaviors and promoting equality.

In conclusion, the Social Dominance Theory was created by Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto in the 1990s. The theory explains how societal hierarchies are created and maintained through the use of social dominance behaviors. It has been used to explain various societal issues and develop interventions aimed at reducing social dominance behaviors.