Standpoint epistemology is a theory that argues that knowledge is not objective and neutral, but rather, it is shaped by the social location and experiences of the knower. This theory has gained significant attention in feminist philosophy and critical race theory circles.

But who coined the term “standpoint epistemology”? Let’s take a closer look.

What is Standpoint Epistemology?

Standpoint epistemology asserts that knowledge is not only influenced by an individual’s personal experiences but also by their social position in society. According to this theory, people from different social locations have different experiences of the world, which affects their understanding of reality. Thus, different social groups have different perspectives on truth, and no one perspective can claim to be entirely objective or neutral.

The Origin of Standpoint Epistemology

The term “standpoint epistemology” was first used by philosopher Sandra Harding in her 1986 book “The Science Question in Feminism.” Harding argued that traditional scientific methods are inherently biased because they are developed from a male perspective and do not consider women’s experiences. She posited that feminist standpoint theory would provide an alternative approach to scientific inquiry, one that would incorporate the knowledge and perspectives of marginalized groups.

Other Contributors to Standpoint Epistemology

Although Harding coined the term “standpoint epistemology,” she was not the only philosopher exploring this idea. Philosopher Nancy Hartsock also contributed significantly to feminist standpoint theory with her 1983 book “The Feminist Standpoint: Developing the Ground for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism.”

In addition to feminist theorists, critical race theorists have also applied standpoint epistemology to their work. Philosopher Patricia Hill Collins expanded on Harding’s ideas by arguing that black women experience an intersectionality of oppression based on race, gender, and class. She posited that the experiences of black women offer a unique standpoint from which to view and critique society.


In conclusion, Sandra Harding coined the term “standpoint epistemology” in her 1986 book “The Science Question in Feminism.” However, Nancy Hartsock and Patricia Hill Collins also made significant contributions to feminist standpoint theory. Today, standpoint epistemology continues to be a valuable tool for understanding how social location and experience shape knowledge and truth.