Which Sentence Best Describes Scientific Theory?


Vincent White

Scientific theories are the backbone of modern scientific understanding. They are the result of extensive research, testing, and analysis and provide a framework for explaining natural phenomena. In this article, we will explore what scientific theory is and how it is different from other types of scientific knowledge.

What is Scientific Theory?

Scientific theory is an explanation of natural phenomena that has been extensively tested and supported by a vast amount of evidence. It is not just a guess or an opinion but rather a well-established explanation with significant predictive power. Scientific theories are constantly subject to scrutiny and potential revision as new evidence emerges.

How is Scientific Theory Different from Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is an educated guess or a tentative explanation for a phenomenon that requires further investigation to become established as a theory. A hypothesis can be based on observational data, previous research, or theoretical models. However, it does not have sufficient evidence to be considered a scientific theory.

In contrast, scientific theories are based on extensive research and testing. They have withstood rigorous testing through experiments, observations, and predictions. Theories are supported by significant empirical evidence that has been collected over time.

How is Scientific Theory Different from Law?

In science, laws describe what will happen in specific circumstances without necessarily explaining why it happens. For example, Newton’s law of motion states that an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an external force. This law describes what will happen but does not explain why it happens.

On the other hand, scientific theories provide explanations for natural phenomena rather than just descriptions like laws. For instance, the theory of evolution explains how species change over time due to genetic variations and natural selection.


In summary, scientific theory provides explanations for natural phenomena that are well-established through rigorous testing and supported by empirical evidence. It differs from hypotheses which are tentative explanations that require further investigation and laws which describe what will happen in specific circumstances without providing an explanation.

As scientists continue to investigate the natural world, our understanding of scientific theories will continue to evolve. It is important to remember that scientific theories are not absolute truths but rather the best explanations we have based on current evidence.