A scientific theory is a well-established explanation of a phenomenon. It is based on empirical evidence and has been tested, observed, and replicated by scientists over time.

Scientific theories are the backbone of scientific research and provide a framework for understanding the natural world. But what exactly makes a scientific theory? Let’s take a closer look at some of its defining characteristics.

Supported by Evidence:
A scientific theory must be supported by empirical evidence that can be observed, measured, and tested. This evidence should come from multiple sources and experiments conducted by different researchers to ensure it is reliable. The more evidence that supports the theory, the more robust it becomes.

A scientific theory must be testable through experiments or observations. The results should be repeatable so other researchers can verify them independently. This means that the theory should make predictions about future experiments and observations that can either support or refute it.

A scientific theory must be falsifiable, meaning it can be proven false if contradictory evidence arises. If a theory cannot be falsified, it is not considered scientific because it cannot be tested or proven wrong.

A scientific theory should make accurate predictions based on the available evidence. These predictions should also be testable and falsifiable. If subsequent observations or experiments do not support the predictions made by the theory, then it may need to be revised or discarded altogether.

Consistent with Existing Knowledge:
A scientific theory must fit within the existing body of knowledge in its field of study. It should not contradict well-established principles or laws unless there is strong evidence to suggest otherwise.


In summary, scientific theories are crucial for understanding natural phenomena and guiding research efforts in various fields of study. To qualify as a scientific theory, an explanation must meet certain criteria such as being supported by empirical evidence, testable, falsifiable, predictive and consistent with existing knowledge.

It is important to remember that scientific theories are not absolute truths, but rather the best explanations we currently have based on the available evidence. As new evidence emerges, theories may be revised or replaced entirely to better explain the natural world.