Which Describes a Scientific Theory?


Martha Robinson

When it comes to science, theories are one of the most important concepts. But what exactly is a scientific theory? In this article, we will explore the characteristics that describe a scientific theory.

What is a Scientific Theory?

A scientific theory is an explanation of natural phenomena that is supported by evidence gathered through the scientific method. It is not just a guess or an opinion, but rather a well-substantiated explanation that is based on empirical evidence and logical reasoning.

Characteristics of a Scientific Theory

There are several characteristics that describe a scientific theory:

  • Supported by evidence: A scientific theory must be supported by empirical evidence. This means that the theory has been tested and verified through experiments or observations.
  • Falsifiable: A scientific theory must be testable and falsifiable.

    This means that there must be some way to prove the theory wrong if it is incorrect.

  • Predictive: A scientific theory must make predictions about future events or observations. These predictions can then be tested and used to either support or refute the theory.
  • Broad in scope: A scientific theory should have broad explanatory power, meaning that it can explain many different phenomena within its field of study.
  • Simplifies complexity: A scientific theory should simplify complex phenomena into simpler explanations. This makes it easier for scientists to understand and study these phenomena.

Examples of Scientific Theories

There are many examples of well-established scientific theories, including:

  • The Theory of Evolution: This explains how species change over time through natural selection and genetic variation.
  • The Theory of General Relativity: This describes how gravity works and how it affects the motion of objects in space.
  • The Germ Theory of Disease: This explains how microorganisms can cause infectious diseases.


In conclusion, a scientific theory is an explanation of natural phenomena that is supported by evidence, falsifiable, predictive, broad in scope, and simplifies complexity. These characteristics are what make scientific theories important tools for understanding the world around us.