Where Does Game Theory Apply?


Diego Sanchez

Game theory is a branch of mathematics that studies strategic decision-making in situations where the outcome of one’s choices depends on the choices of others. It has applications in a wide range of fields, from economics and political science to biology and computer science. In this article, we will explore some of the areas where game theory is applied.


Game theory has been used extensively in economics to model various market structures and predict outcomes. For instance, it has been used to study oligopolies, which are markets with a few large firms that dominate the industry. The classic example is the prisoner’s dilemma, which demonstrates the difficulty of cooperation between two firms that have an incentive to cheat on each other.

Another application of game theory in economics is fair division. When two or more parties want to divide a scarce resource fairly, game theory can provide solutions that ensure each party receives an equitable share without any party feeling cheated.

Political Science

Game theory has also been applied to political science to analyze decision-making in international relations and conflict resolution. One famous example is the Cuban Missile Crisis, where game theory was used to model the behavior of the United States and Soviet Union during the standoff.

Another area where game theory has been applied in political science is voting systems. Game theorists have developed models to analyze different voting systems and their fairness properties.


Game theory has found applications in biology as well, particularly in studying evolutionary dynamics and animal behavior. For example, it has been used to model predator-prey interactions and cooperation among animals.

One notable application of game theory in biology is evolutionary stable strategies (ESS). An ESS is a strategy that cannot be invaded by any mutant strategy, meaning it will persist over time if it becomes established in a population.

Computer Science

Finally, game theory has also influenced computer science, particularly in the field of artificial intelligence. Game theory has been used to design algorithms that can learn to play games like chess and poker at a high level.

Furthermore, game theory has also been applied to computer networking, where it is used to design routing protocols that can efficiently transmit data across a network.


In conclusion, game theory is a versatile tool that has applications in a wide range of fields. From economics and political science to biology and computer science, game theory provides insights into strategic decision-making that can help us understand complex systems and predict outcomes. By using game theory, we can make more informed decisions in our personal and professional lives.