What Was Malthus Contribution to the Theory of Evolution?


Martha Robinson

Thomas Robert Malthus was an English cleric, economist, and scholar who lived in the 18th and 19th century. He is most famous for his contributions to the theory of evolution, which he formulated in his book “An Essay on the Principle of Population”. Malthus’s work had a significant impact on the thinking of Charles Darwin and other evolutionary biologists.

Malthusian Theory of Population Growth

Malthus believed that population growth was exponential, while resources grew arithmetically. This meant that if unchecked, population growth would outstrip available resources and lead to widespread starvation and poverty. Malthus argued that this was a natural law that applied to all living organisms, including humans.

The Struggle for Existence

Malthus’s theory was based on the idea of natural selection, which he called “the struggle for existence”. In this view, organisms compete with each other for limited resources such as food, water, and shelter. Those that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than those that are less well adapted.

Darwin’s Contributions

Charles Darwin was deeply influenced by Malthus’s ideas about population growth and natural selection. In fact, he cited Malthus’s book in the second chapter of “On the Origin of Species”, where he wrote:

“…the life of wild animals is a struggle for existence… The term [struggle for existence] in its largest sense ought to be used for all those cases in which the condition of external things is such as not to allow of any great increase in the numbers of a species beyond what can possibly be supported by the means of subsistence.”

Darwin saw how Malthus’s ideas could be applied to explain how species evolve over time. He argued that individuals within a species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their advantageous traits to their offspring.


In conclusion, Malthus’s contributions to the theory of evolution were groundbreaking. He provided a framework for understanding how populations grow and compete for limited resources, and how this process drives natural selection. His work was instrumental in shaping the thinking of Charles Darwin and other evolutionary biologists, and his ideas continue to be relevant today.