What Two Concepts Are Included in Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory?


Diego Sanchez

Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is a widely recognized theory in the field of psychology that describes the important role that social interaction plays in cognitive development. According to Vygotsky, there are two concepts that are central to this theory: the zone of proximal development and scaffolding.

The Zone of Proximal Development
The zone of proximal development refers to the gap between what a learner can do on their own and what they can do with assistance from someone more knowledgeable. Vygotsky believed that learning occurs when individuals are challenged to go beyond their current level of competence, but not so much that they become frustrated or overwhelmed.

This is where the concept of the zone of proximal development comes in. By providing learners with tasks that are just outside their current level of ability but still within their potential to learn, educators can help them progress and improve.

Scaffolding refers to the support or guidance provided by more experienced individuals to help learners move through their zone of proximal development. This support could take many forms, such as verbal cues, prompts, modeling, or feedback. The goal is to gradually reduce the amount of scaffolding provided as learners gain confidence and skills, until they can perform the task on their own.

How These Concepts Work Together

The interplay between these two concepts is what makes Vygotsky’s theory so powerful. The zone of proximal development helps educators identify tasks that will challenge learners without overwhelming them, while scaffolding provides the support needed for learners to successfully complete those tasks. Over time, as learners develop new skills and knowledge, they move into new zones of proximal development with more complex tasks and less support needed.

Real-World Applications

Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory has many practical applications in education and beyond. For example:

  • Teachers can use the zone of proximal development to identify appropriate learning activities and assignments for their students.
  • Parents can use scaffolding techniques to help their children develop new skills, such as learning to tie their shoes or ride a bike.
  • Employers can use these concepts to design training programs that challenge employees without overwhelming them.


In summary, Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is an important framework for understanding how social interaction and support contribute to cognitive development. By identifying learners’ zones of proximal development and providing appropriate scaffolding, educators and other adults can help individuals reach their full potential.