What Social Theory Is Thomas Hobbes Known For?


Martha Robinson

Thomas Hobbes, a prominent philosopher of the 17th century, is best known for his social theory that revolves around the concept of the social contract. Hobbes’ ideas on social theory have had a profound impact on political philosophy and continue to shape our understanding of society today.

The State of Nature

In order to understand Hobbes’ social theory, it is essential to grasp his concept of the ‘state of nature.’ According to Hobbes, the state of nature refers to a hypothetical condition in which individuals lack any form of government or authority. In this state, humans are driven by their natural instincts and desires, leading to a constant struggle for power and self-preservation.

Hobbes famously described the state of nature as a life that is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” He argued that without a strong central authority to enforce laws and maintain order, society would be plagued by chaos and violence.

The Social Contract

To escape this state of nature and establish an orderly society, Hobbes proposed the concept of a social contract. The social contract is an implicit agreement among individuals in which they surrender some freedoms in exchange for security and protection provided by a sovereign authority.

Hobbes believed that people enter into this contract willingly because they recognize the importance of living in an organized society rather than enduring constant conflict. The sovereign authority’s role is to ensure law enforcement and protect citizens from harm.


One crucial aspect of Hobbes’ social theory is his advocacy for authoritarianism. He argued that an all-powerful sovereign authority is necessary for maintaining order and stability within society. According to Hobbes, this authority should possess absolute power over its subjects without any limitations or checks on their actions.

Hobbes believed that only a strong central authority could prevent individuals from reverting to their natural instincts and ensure peace and security. He argued that without such authority, society would degenerate into chaos and anarchy.

The Leviathan

Hobbes often used the metaphor of a ‘Leviathan’ to represent the sovereign authority. The Leviathan is a symbol of immense power and control, capable of maintaining order through its ability to enforce laws and punish transgressors.

Hobbes’ choice of the Leviathan as a metaphor emphasizes the importance he placed on a strong, centralized government. The image of this formidable creature serves as a reminder of the necessity for an authoritative figure to maintain social harmony.

Impact and Criticisms

Hobbes’ social theory has had a lasting impact on political philosophy, providing valuable insights into the nature of power, authority, and society. His ideas on the social contract have influenced subsequent philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

However, Hobbes’ advocacy for authoritarianism has also drawn significant criticism. Critics argue that his emphasis on an all-powerful sovereign ignores individual freedoms and can lead to oppressive regimes.

In Conclusion

Thomas Hobbes’ social theory revolves around the state of nature and the concept of a social contract. His belief in authoritarianism as necessary for maintaining order has shaped our understanding of political philosophy. While his ideas continue to be debated, there is no denying their significance in shaping our understanding of society today.