Thomas Hobbes was a 17th century philosopher who is best known for his theory of social contract. According to Hobbes, society was in a state of chaos and disorder before the establishment of a government. He believed that individuals entered into a social contract with one another to create a government that would protect their rights and ensure their safety.

The State of Nature

Hobbes believed that in the state of nature, individuals were in a constant state of war with one another. In this state, there was no government or authority to regulate behavior. Each individual was free to do as they pleased, which often led to conflict and violence.

The Social Contract

To escape this state of chaos, individuals entered into a social contract with one another. This contract involved giving up some of their individual freedoms in exchange for protection from the government. The government would have the power to enforce laws and punish those who broke them.

The Leviathan

Hobbes believed that the government needed to be strong and powerful in order to maintain order and protect its citizens. He referred to this strong government as the “Leviathan.” The Leviathan was responsible for maintaining law and order, protecting citizens from external threats, and ensuring that justice was served.


While Hobbes’ theory of social contract has been influential in political philosophy, it has also faced criticism from various scholars. Some argue that Hobbes’ theory places too much emphasis on the power of the government at the expense of individual rights. Others argue that the idea of a social contract is unrealistic and does not accurately reflect how societies develop.


Thomas Hobbes’ theory of social contract remains a significant contribution to political philosophy. His ideas about the role of government and the importance of maintaining order within society continue to be discussed and debated today. While his theory has faced criticism, it nonetheless offers valuable insights into the nature of society and the relationship between individuals and their government.