What Is the Subject Matter of Epistemology?


Diego Sanchez

Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that deals with the study of knowledge. It is concerned with understanding the nature, sources, and limitations of knowledge. Epistemologists seek to answer questions such as: What is knowledge?

How do we acquire it? What are the different types of knowledge? What are the limits of knowledge?

What Is Knowledge?

Knowledge can be defined as justified true belief. In other words, for something to count as knowledge, it must be true, we must believe it to be true, and we must have good reasons or evidence for believing that it is true.

How Do We Acquire Knowledge?

There are different theories about how we acquire knowledge. Some epistemologists argue that we acquire knowledge through experience, while others claim that we have innate ideas or concepts that allow us to know certain things.


Empiricists hold that all knowledge comes from experience. According to this view, our senses provide us with information about the world around us, and through observation and experimentation, we can gain knowledge about how things work.


Rationalists believe that some knowledge can be acquired independently of experience. They argue that certain truths are self-evident or can be deduced from other truths through logical reasoning.

Types of Knowledge

There are different types of knowledge, including:

  • Procedural Knowledge: This refers to knowing how to do something.
  • Declarative Knowledge: This refers to knowing that something is true.
  • Evidential Knowledge: This refers to knowing why something is true.

Limits of Knowledge

Epistemologists also study the limits of human knowledge. There are several ways in which knowledge can be limited:

  • Subjectivity: Our perceptions and beliefs can be influenced by our personal experiences and biases, which can limit our ability to gain objective knowledge.
  • Language: The limitations of language can also affect our ability to communicate and understand knowledge.
  • Epistemic Luck: Sometimes we may happen to believe something that is true, but for the wrong reasons, or vice versa. This is known as epistemic luck.


In conclusion, Epistemology is concerned with understanding the nature, sources, and limitations of knowledge. It explores questions about how we acquire knowledge, what types of knowledge there are, and what the limits of human knowledge are. By understanding these issues, we can deepen our understanding of how we know what we know.