The fundamental theory of evolution has been one of the most controversial topics in the scientific community. Evolution is a natural process that occurs over time and explains how all living organisms, including humans, have come to be. In this article, we will discuss the basic concepts of evolution and its fundamental theory.

What Is Evolution?

Evolution is a natural process that occurs over time. It is the gradual change in the genetic makeup of populations of organisms over generations. The theory of evolution explains how life has developed on Earth from simple organisms to complex beings like humans.

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection

The theory of natural selection was first proposed by Charles Darwin in his book ‘On the Origin of Species.’ He suggested that species evolved through a process called natural selection, where organisms with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without them.

Darwin’s theory was based on three main principles: variation, heredity, and selection. Variation refers to differences within a population that can be inherited from one generation to another.

Heredity refers to how traits are passed down from parents to their offspring. Selection refers to the fact that not all individuals in a population survive and reproduce equally.

The Role of Mutation

Mutation is a random change in an organism’s DNA that can lead to new traits. Mutations can occur naturally or as a result of exposure to environmental factors such as radiation or chemicals. While most mutations are harmful or neutral, some can provide an advantage for survival and reproduction.

The Evidence for Evolution

There is overwhelming evidence for evolution, including fossil records, comparative anatomy, embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and more. Fossil records show the gradual change in species over time, while comparative anatomy shows similarities between different species that suggest they share common ancestors.

Embryology reveals that different species go through similar stages of development, suggesting they share a common ancestry. Biogeography shows the distribution of species around the world and how it has changed over time. Molecular biology shows the similarities in DNA sequences between different species, further supporting the idea of a shared ancestry.


In conclusion, evolution is a natural process that occurs over time and explains how all living organisms have come to be. The fundamental theory of evolution is based on the principles of natural selection, variation, heredity, and mutation.

There is overwhelming evidence for evolution from various fields of science. By understanding evolution, we can better appreciate the diversity of life on Earth and our place in it.