Social conflict theory is a sociological perspective that views society as a struggle for power and resources between different groups. This theory posits that society is characterized by inequality, and that conflicts arise between groups with different interests, values, and goals.

The Core Concept of Social Conflict Theory

At the heart of social conflict theory is the idea that society is divided into two main classes – the ruling class and the working class. The ruling class consists of those who own the means of production, while the working class consists of those who labor to produce goods and services.

According to social conflict theory, these two classes have conflicting interests. The ruling class wants to maintain its power and control over society, while the working class wants to improve its economic and social conditions. This fundamental conflict between these two classes drives social change.

Factors Contributing to Social Conflict

Social conflict theory identifies several factors that contribute to social conflict. These include:

The Role of Power in Social Conflict Theory

Power plays an important role in social conflict theory. Those who hold power use it to maintain their dominance over others. They do this by controlling access to resources such as wealth, education, healthcare, and political influence.

The ruling class uses its power to maintain the status quo by promoting ideologies that justify inequality and oppression. For example, they may argue that the poor are lazy and deserve their poverty, or that women are naturally inferior to men.

The working class, on the other hand, uses its power to challenge the status quo and demand change. They do this by organizing themselves into unions, political parties, and social movements. Through collective action, they can exert pressure on those in power and achieve social change.


Social conflict theory provides a critical perspective on society by highlighting the ways in which inequality and oppression are built into social structures. It shows that conflicts over resources, power, and ideology are an inevitable part of social life.

By understanding the core concepts of social conflict theory, we can better understand how societies function and how we can work towards creating a more just and equitable world.