The Social Contract Theory by Locke


The Social Contract Theory is a concept that has shaped political philosophy for centuries. One of the prominent figures associated with this theory is John Locke, an English philosopher who lived during the 17th century.

Locke’s perspective on the social contract provides insight into the relationship between individuals and their government. In this article, we will explore the key ideas put forth by Locke regarding the Social Contract Theory.

Locke’s Views:

Locke believed that before the existence of a government, individuals existed in a state of nature. In this state, people had certain natural rights, such as life, liberty, and property.

However, living in this state also posed challenges as everyone had the right to enforce these rights themselves. To overcome these challenges and ensure a peaceful society, people entered into a social contract.

The Social Contract:

According to Locke, the social contract is an agreement between individuals to form a government that would protect their natural rights. This agreement involves surrendering some individual freedoms in exchange for protection and security provided by the government. The authority of the government is derived from the consent of its citizens.

Government’s Role:

Locke argued that governments exist to protect and preserve the natural rights of its citizens. He believed that governments should be limited in their powers and should not interfere with individual liberties unnecessarily. The primary role of a just government is to maintain law and order while respecting individual rights.

The Consent of the Governed:

Locke emphasized that legitimate governments derive their authority from the consent of those they govern. This means that individuals have an active role in choosing their representatives and participating in decision-making processes. By granting consent to be governed, individuals also have the right to hold their government accountable for any abuses or violations of their natural rights.

Revolutionary Right:

In cases where a government fails to protect the natural rights of its citizens or becomes tyrannical, Locke believed that the people have the right to revolt. This revolutionary right is rooted in the idea that the social contract can be broken if the government fails to fulfill its obligations. However, Locke also emphasized that revolution should only be used as a last resort when all other peaceful means of resolution have been exhausted.


John Locke’s Social Contract Theory provides valuable insights into the relationship between individuals and governments. His emphasis on natural rights, consent of the governed, and limited government powers continue to influence political thought today. Understanding Locke’s ideas can help us evaluate and analyze the legitimacy and effectiveness of governments in protecting individual liberties.