What Is Social Comparison and Social Identity Theory?

Social comparison and social identity theory are two important concepts in social psychology that help us understand how individuals perceive themselves in relation to others and how group memberships influence our self-concept. In this article, we will explore these two theories in detail and discuss their significance in shaping human behavior.

Social Comparison Theory

Social comparison theory, proposed by psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, suggests that individuals evaluate their own abilities, opinions, and attributes by comparing themselves to others. According to this theory, people engage in social comparison as a means of gaining information about themselves and determining their self-worth.

Through social comparison, individuals seek to answer questions such as “Am I doing well? “, “Am I better or worse than others?

“, and “How do I fit into the larger social context?”. This process often occurs unconsciously as we naturally assess our abilities and opinions based on comparisons with those around us.

The Role of Social Media

In today’s digital age, social media platforms play a significant role in facilitating social comparisons. People often present carefully curated versions of their lives on platforms like Facebook and Instagram, showcasing their achievements, relationships, and experiences. This public display can lead to upward or downward comparisons where individuals may feel either superior or inferior to others based on these online representations.

Social Identity Theory

Social identity theory, developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s, focuses on the role of group membership in shaping an individual’s self-concept. According to this theory, people derive a sense of identity from the groups they belong to and use this sense of identity to define themselves.

In social identity theory, individuals strive to maintain a positive social identity by associating themselves with groups they perceive as prestigious or superior. This can lead to the formation of in-group bias, where individuals favor their own group and may even derogate or discriminate against members of other groups.

The Impact of Social Identity

Group Formation and Belonging

Belonging to a particular group provides individuals with a sense of identity and belongingness. Group memberships can range from small-scale categories such as family, friends, or work colleagues to larger-scale categories such as nationality, religion, or ethnicity. The social identities we adopt influence our behavior, attitudes, and interactions with others.

Intergroup Conflict

Social identity theory also helps us understand intergroup conflict and prejudice. When individuals strongly identify with a particular group, they tend to view their own group positively while perceiving out-groups negatively. This categorization can lead to stereotypes, discrimination, and even conflict between different social groups.


Social comparison and social identity theories shed light on how individuals perceive themselves in relation to others and how group memberships influence our self-concept. These theories have significant implications for understanding human behavior in various contexts such as social media interactions, group dynamics, intergroup relations, and personal identity formation.

By understanding these theories, we can gain insights into the complex nature of human behavior and work towards creating more inclusive and harmonious societies.