What Is Phenomenology Method in Research?


Jane Flores

Phenomenology is a research method that aims to understand the essence of human experiences. It involves studying experiences as they occur in their natural settings, without imposing any preconceived ideas or theories. In this article, we will explore what phenomenology is, how it works, and its applications in research.

What is Phenomenology?
Phenomenology is a philosophical approach that dates back to the early 20th century. It was founded by Edmund Husserl, a German philosopher who sought to understand what he called “the things themselves.” Husserl believed that we can gain knowledge of reality by examining our subjective experiences of it.

How Does Phenomenology Work?
Phenomenology involves exploring the lived experiences of individuals through interviews, observations, and other qualitative methods. Researchers aim to uncover the essential structures of these experiences, including their meanings and underlying motivations.

To achieve this goal, phenomenologists use a process called “bracketing,” in which they temporarily set aside their assumptions and beliefs about the experience being studied. This allows them to focus on the experience itself and avoid imposing any external biases.

The data collected through phenomenological research is typically analyzed using a process called “phenomenological reduction,” in which researchers identify common themes and patterns across participants’ experiences. These themes are then used to develop a deeper understanding of the essence of the experience being studied.

Applications of Phenomenology in Research

Phenomenology has been used in various fields, including psychology, sociology, nursing, and education. In psychology, for example, researchers may use phenomenological methods to study topics such as depression or anxiety and gain insights into how individuals experience these conditions.

In nursing, phenomenological research can be used to explore patients’ experiences with illness or hospitalization. This information can be used to improve patient care by identifying areas where healthcare providers can better support patients’ needs.


In conclusion, phenomenology is a research method that seeks to understand the essence of human experiences by examining them through a subjective lens. By studying experiences in their natural settings and setting aside preconceived assumptions, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the underlying structures and meanings of these experiences. Phenomenology has been used in various fields and has the potential to provide valuable insights into a wide range of topics.