What Is Game Theory Theory?


Diego Sanchez

Game theory is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of strategic decision-making. It is the science of how people or organizations interact with each other in different situations. Game theory has become increasingly important in various fields such as economics, political science, psychology, and biology.

What Is Game Theory?

Game theory is based on the idea that every decision made by an individual or an organization affects others in some way. It involves studying how people or organizations make decisions when they are aware that their actions will affect others. The main focus of game theory is on the interaction between players in a game where each player’s decision affects another player’s outcome.

The Different Elements of Game Theory

There are several elements involved in game theory which are essential to understanding its concepts. These include:

  • Players: The individuals or organizations involved in the game.
  • Strategies: The actions taken by players to achieve their objectives.
  • Payoffs: The rewards or consequences resulting from a particular strategy taken by a player.
  • Information: The knowledge players have about each other’s strategies and payoffs.

The Types of Games in Game Theory

Game theory involves studying several types of games that can be categorized based on their characteristics. Some common types of games include:

  • Prisoner’s Dilemma: In this game, two players must decide whether to cooperate or betray each other for personal gain.
  • Battle of the Sexes: In this game, two players must decide where to go on a date, but have different preferences.
  • Chicken: In this game, two players must decide whether to swerve away from each other on a collision course or continue forward.
  • Ultimatum: In this game, one player makes an offer to split a sum of money with the other player. The other player must either accept or reject the offer.

Applications of Game Theory

Game theory has several applications in different fields such as:

  • Economics: Game theory is used to study how firms make decisions in markets.
  • Political Science: Game theory is used to study how parties make strategic decisions in elections.
  • Psychology: Game theory is used to study how people make decisions in social situations.
  • Biology: Game theory is used to study how animals make decisions in different environments.


In conclusion, game theory is a powerful tool for understanding decision-making and the interactions between players. It has several applications in different fields and can help us better understand how individuals and organizations make strategic decisions. By studying game theory, we can gain insights into human behavior and use that knowledge to improve our lives and society as a whole.