Game theory is a branch of mathematics that studies decision-making in situations where multiple parties are involved. It has applications in economics, political science, psychology, and many other fields. In this article, we will explore what game theory is and some of its key properties.

What is Game Theory?

Game theory is the study of strategic interactions between two or more individuals or groups. In other words, it involves analyzing situations where the outcome depends on the decisions made by multiple parties. These parties could be individuals, companies, countries, or any other entities that can make decisions.

Game theory provides a framework for analyzing these interactions and predicting how they will play out. It uses mathematical models to describe the decisions that each party can make and the outcomes that will result from those decisions.

Types of Games

There are many different types of games in game theory. Some common types include:

Each type of game has its own unique features and rules. However, all games involve two or more parties making decisions that affect each other’s outcomes.

Properties of Game Theory

There are several key properties of game theory that make it a useful tool for analyzing decision-making scenarios:


Game theory assumes that all parties involved are rational actors who act in their own self-interest. This means that they will make decisions based on what they believe will lead to the best outcome for themselves.


In order to make rational decisions, parties need information about the situation they are in and the actions of others. Game theory takes into account how much information each party has and how they can use that information to make decisions.


Game theory uses payoffs to represent the outcomes of different decisions. Payoffs can be positive or negative and are used to determine which decision is the best one for each party.


A strategy is a plan of action that a party can take in a game. Game theory analyzes the different strategies that each party can use and how those strategies will affect the outcome of the game.

Nash Equilibrium

Nash equilibrium is a concept in game theory that represents a situation where no player can improve their outcome by changing their strategy, assuming that all other players keep their strategies unchanged.


Game theory provides a powerful framework for analyzing decision-making scenarios involving multiple parties. By understanding the properties of game theory, we can gain insights into how people and organizations make decisions and how those decisions will affect outcomes.