What Is Game Theory and Its Application?


Vincent White

Game theory is defined as the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers. It is an important tool in the field of economics, political science, psychology, and biology. The theory aims to understand and predict the behavior of individuals or groups in a competitive situation where the outcome depends on their actions.

Key Concepts in Game Theory

There are several key concepts in game theory that are important to understand:

In game theory, players are individuals or groups who make decisions that affect the outcome of a game.

Strategies refer to the actions that players take in a game. Each player has different strategies available to them, and they must choose which strategy to use based on their objectives and the actions of other players.

Payoffs refer to the rewards or penalties that players receive based on their actions. In most games, payoffs are represented by numbers or other quantitative measures.

Application of Game Theory

Game theory has several applications across various fields. Here are some examples:

Game theory is widely used in economics to analyze markets and pricing strategies. For example, companies may use game theory to determine the best pricing strategy for their products based on how competitors will respond.

Political Science:
Game theory is also used in political science to study voting behavior and international relations. For example, game theory can be used to analyze how countries may respond to trade policies or military actions taken by other countries.

Game theory is used in biology to study animal behavior and evolution. For example, researchers may use game theory to analyze how animals compete for resources such as food or mates.

Examples of Games

There are several classic games that illustrate key concepts in game theory. Here are some examples:

Prisoner’s Dilemma:
The prisoner’s dilemma is a classic game in which two suspects are being interrogated by the police. Each suspect has the choice to confess or remain silent.

If both suspects confess, they both receive a harsher sentence than if they both remained silent. However, if one suspect confesses and the other remains silent, the confessing suspect receives a lighter sentence.

Chicken is a game in which two drivers are racing towards each other on a single lane road. Each driver has the option to swerve or continue driving straight.

If both drivers swerve, they avoid a collision. However, if one driver swerves and the other continues straight, the driver who continues straight “wins” by not swerving.


In conclusion, game theory is an important tool for understanding strategic decision-making in competitive situations. It has applications across various fields including economics, political science, and biology. By understanding key concepts in game theory and analyzing classic games, individuals and organizations can make more informed decisions that lead to better outcomes.