What Is Existentialism in Philosophy PDF?


Diego Sanchez

Existentialism is a philosophical movement that emphasizes individual existence, freedom, and choice. It is a way of thinking that focuses on the question of human existence and the search for meaning in life. This philosophy is often associated with thinkers such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger.

What is Existentialism?

Existentialism is a broad philosophical movement that has its roots in the 19th century. It emerged in response to the growing sense of alienation and dislocation brought about by industrialization and modernization.

At its core, existentialism is concerned with individual freedom and choice. It asserts that each person must create their own meaning in life because there is no inherent purpose or meaning to existence.

The Key Ideas of Existentialism

There are several key ideas that define existentialist philosophy:

  • Human freedom: Existentialists believe that humans are fundamentally free beings who must take responsibility for their actions.
  • Individual choice: Each person has the power to shape their own destiny through the choices they make.
  • Authenticity: Authenticity refers to living in accordance with one’s true self rather than conforming to societal norms or expectations.
  • Existential anxiety: The realization that life has no inherent meaning can lead to feelings of anxiety or despair.

The Criticisms of Existentialism

While existentialism has gained many adherents over the years, it has also faced criticism from various quarters. Some critics have argued that it can lead to a sense of nihilism or moral relativism. Others have accused existentialists of being overly pessimistic about human nature.

The Impact of Existentialism

Despite these criticisms, existentialism has had a profound impact on Western philosophy and culture. Its emphasis on individual freedom and choice has influenced everything from literature to politics to psychology. Existentialist themes can be found in the works of authors such as Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, and Samuel Beckett, as well as in films like The Seventh Seal and Blade Runner.

The Takeaway

Existentialism is a philosophical movement that emphasizes individual freedom and choice. While it has faced criticism over the years, it has had a profound impact on Western culture and continues to be a vital philosophical perspective today.