What Is Cognitive Psychology and What Are Its Types?


Diego Sanchez

Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on studying mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, language, and problem-solving. It is concerned with how people perceive, process, and store information from the environment.

Cognitive psychology believes that the mind works like a computer in processing information. It studies how people acquire, process, and apply knowledge to different situations. Cognitive psychologists use various methods to study mental processes such as experiments, observation, and computer simulations.

There are different types of cognitive psychology that focus on specific areas of mental processes. Let’s take a look at some of them:


Perception is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information from the environment. It involves recognizing patterns and making sense of them. Perception researchers study topics like visual illusions, depth perception, and object recognition.


Attention is the ability to selectively focus on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring others. Attention researchers study topics like selective attention (concentrating on one thing while filtering out distractions), divided attention (focusing on multiple things at once), and sustained attention (maintaining focus over time).


Memory is the process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information over time. Memory researchers study topics like short-term memory (remembering things for a few seconds), long-term memory (remembering things for weeks or years), and working memory (the ability to hold onto information in order to complete a task).


Language refers to the communication system used by humans to express ideas and concepts. Language researchers study topics like language acquisition (how we learn language), language processing (how we understand language), and language production (how we produce language).


Problem-solving refers to the ability to find solutions to complex problems. Problem-solving researchers study topics like decision-making (choosing between options), reasoning (drawing conclusions based on evidence), and creativity (generating novel solutions to problems).


In conclusion, cognitive psychology is a fascinating field that seeks to understand how the mind processes information. It is a broad field with many different areas of focus, including perception, attention, memory, language, and problem-solving. By understanding how the mind works, cognitive psychologists hope to improve our understanding of human behavior and develop new treatments for psychological disorders.