What Is Cognitive Means in Psychology?


Vincent White

Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that studies mental processes like thinking, perception, attention, memory, problem-solving, and language use. It is one of the most popular and influential areas of psychology today.

What Is Cognitive Psychology?

Cognitive psychology focuses on how people process information from the world around them. It is concerned with how people acquire, process, and store information. Cognitive psychologists investigate how people think, reason, perceive the world around them, solve problems, understand language and make decisions.

What Are Mental Processes?

Mental processes are the internal activities of our brains that allow us to perceive and interact with the world around us. These include processes such as attention, perception, memory, language use and problem-solving.

Attention: Attention is an essential cognitive process that allows us to focus on relevant information while ignoring irrelevant information.

Perception: Perception is another critical cognitive process that involves interpreting sensory information from our environment.

Memory: Memory refers to our ability to encode, store and retrieve information over time.

Language Use: Language use involves understanding spoken or written language as well as using language to communicate with others.

Problem-Solving: Problem-solving refers to our ability to find solutions to complex problems or challenges in our environment.

The History of Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology emerged in the 1950s and 1960s as a reaction to behaviorism – which focused solely on observable behaviors rather than internal mental processes. Cognitive psychologists believed that studying mental processes was essential in understanding human behavior.

Some of the most influential figures in cognitive psychology include Noam Chomsky who focused on language acquisition studies and George Miller who studied memory capacity limitations through his famous “Magical Number Seven” experiments.

Cognitive Psychology Research Methods

Cognitive psychologists use a variety of research methods to study mental processes. These include experiments, surveys, and observations.

Experiments are the most common research method used in cognitive psychology. These experiments are designed to manipulate independent variables to see how they affect dependent variables.

Cognitive Psychology Theories

Cognitive psychology has many theories that explain various mental processes such as memory, attention, perception, and problem-solving. These include theories like the information processing model, which suggests that our brains process information like a computer processor.

Another popular theory is schema theory which suggests that we organize and interpret information based on our previous experiences or pre-existing knowledge.


In conclusion, cognitive psychology is an essential branch of psychology that studies mental processes such as thinking, perception, attention, memory, language use and problem-solving. It has helped us understand how humans acquire knowledge and interact with the world around them. With continued research and experimentation in this field, we can continue to unlock the secrets of the human mind.