Cognitive development psychology is a fascinating field of study that focuses on how a person’s thinking and mental processes change and develop over time. This area of psychology is concerned with the cognitive, or mental, processes involved in learning, problem-solving, reasoning, and decision-making. In this article, we will explore the key concepts and theories of cognitive development psychology.

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

One of the most influential theories in cognitive development is Jean Piaget’s theory. According to Piaget, children go through four stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage.

The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth to around two years old. During this period, children learn through their senses and motor activities. They begin to understand object permanence – that objects still exist even if they can’t see them.

In the preoperational stage (ages two to seven), children start to use symbols to represent objects and ideas. However, they still have trouble understanding conservation – that the amount of an object stays the same even if it changes shape.

In the concrete operational stage (ages seven to twelve), children become more logical in their thinking. They begin to understand conservation and can solve simple math problems.

Finally, in the formal operational stage (ages twelve and up), people can think abstractly and solve complex problems.

Information Processing Theory

Another important theory in cognitive development psychology is information processing theory. This theory suggests that humans process information like a computer does – input goes into our brains where it is processed by various mental functions before producing output.

These mental functions include attention (focusing on important information), perception (interpreting sensory input), memory (storing information), language (using words to communicate), and problem-solving (finding solutions).

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasizes the role of culture and social interaction in cognitive development. According to this theory, children learn through their interactions with others and the cultural context in which they live.

For example, a child growing up in a bilingual home will develop language skills differently than a child growing up in a monolingual home. Similarly, a child growing up in poverty may have different opportunities for learning than a child growing up in an affluent home.


Cognitive development psychology is a complex and fascinating field that helps us understand how people think, learn, and grow over time. Whether through Piaget’s stages of development, information processing theory, or Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, we can gain insight into the cognitive processes that shape our lives. By studying cognitive development psychology, we can better understand ourselves and those around us.