What Does Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Explain?


Vincent White

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution is one of the most significant and influential scientific theories of all time. It explains how species change over time and how new species arise from existing ones. Darwin’s theory has revolutionized our understanding of the natural world, and it continues to shape the way we think about biology today.

The Basics of Darwin’s Theory

Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on several key principles. The first is that all living organisms have descended from a common ancestor. This means that all life on Earth is related in some way, and that the diversity we see today is the result of millions of years of evolutionary change.

The second principle is that natural selection is the mechanism by which evolution occurs. Natural selection is the process by which organisms with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without those traits. Over time, this leads to changes in the gene pool of a population, resulting in the evolution of new species.

What Does Evolution Explain?

Darwin’s theory explains many aspects of the natural world that were previously unexplained. For example, it explains why there are so many different species on Earth, and why they are distributed in specific ways across different environments.

Evolution also explains why some species have similar features even though they are not closely related. For example, birds and bats both have wings for flying, even though they evolved from different ancestors.

What Doesn’t Evolution Explain?

While evolution can explain a lot about the natural world, there are still many things that remain mysterious or unexplained. For example, it cannot explain how life originated on Earth or why some organisms exhibit complex behaviors like tool use or language.

The Evidence for Evolution

There is a wealth of evidence supporting Darwin’s theory of evolution. Fossil records show clear patterns of evolutionary change over millions of years. DNA analysis also supports the idea of a common ancestor for all life on Earth.

Another piece of evidence for evolution is the observation of natural selection in action. For example, studies have shown that bacteria can evolve resistance to antibiotics over time, and that certain bird species have evolved longer beaks to adapt to changes in their environment.


Darwin’s theory of evolution is a powerful tool for understanding the natural world. While there are still many mysteries left to solve, the evidence supporting evolution is overwhelming, and it continues to shape our understanding of biology today.