What Did Thomas Malthus Contribute to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?


Jane Flores

Thomas Malthus is a well-known British economist who lived during the 18th and 19th centuries. He is often cited as an important influence on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. In this article, we will explore what exactly Malthus contributed to Darwin’s theory and why his ideas were so influential.

The Malthusian Theory of Population

Malthus believed that human populations would always tend to increase faster than the food supply available to sustain them. This led him to argue that there would always be a struggle for existence in which only the fittest would survive and reproduce. He called this idea the “Malthusian theory of population.”

According to Malthus, if populations were left unchecked, they would grow at an exponential rate, while food supplies would only increase linearly. As a result, he predicted that there would inevitably come a point where there were too many people and not enough food to go around.

The Influence of Malthus on Darwin’s Theory

Darwin was familiar with Malthus’ work and saw how it could be applied to the natural world. He realized that if Malthus’ ideas were correct for human populations, they must also be true for other species. Darwin saw that in nature, organisms produced more offspring than could possibly survive and reproduce due to limited resources such as food, water, and shelter.

This led him to develop his own theory of evolution by natural selection – in which those organisms with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and pass on those traits to their offspring. This process eventually leads to new species evolving over time.

The Role of Natural Selection in Evolution

Malthus’ theory helped Darwin understand that natural selection was a driving force behind evolution. The struggle for existence meant that not all individuals within a species would survive long enough to reproduce. The fittest individuals would be more likely to survive and pass on their advantageous traits to their offspring, while those less fit would eventually die out.

Darwin also saw that natural selection was a gradual process that occurred over many generations. He realized that small variations between individuals could accumulate over time, leading to significant changes in the characteristics of a species.

The Importance of Malthus’ Ideas Today

Malthus’ theory of population growth and Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection continue to be important concepts today. They have been used to understand the impacts of human activities on the environment and the need for conservation efforts.

For example, human activity has caused significant changes in the world’s ecosystems, including deforestation, pollution, and climate change. These changes have disrupted natural habitats and led to declines in biodiversity. By understanding how populations grow and how natural selection works, scientists can better predict the impacts of human activities on ecosystems and develop strategies for protecting them.


In conclusion, Thomas Malthus’ theory of population growth was a major influence on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Malthus’ ideas helped Darwin understand how natural selection worked in nature and why it was such an important force in shaping the characteristics of species over time. Today, these concepts continue to be important for understanding the impacts of human activities on ecosystems and developing strategies for protecting them.