Social contract theory is a philosophical concept that attempts to explain how societies are formed and maintained. This theory suggests that individuals agree to give up some of their personal freedoms in exchange for protection and other benefits provided by the government.

However, this theory is not without its criticisms. In this article, we will explore the two main objections to social contract theory.

Objection 1: The Theory Is Unrealistic

One of the primary objections to social contract theory is that it is unrealistic. Critics argue that the idea of a hypothetical agreement between individuals and their government is not grounded in reality. They argue that such an agreement could never be reached as people have different desires, needs, and goals.

Additionally, critics argue that social contract theory fails to account for power disparities within society. The wealthy and powerful have more influence over the government than the average citizen. As a result, they can use this power to shape the terms of any supposed social contract to their advantage.

The Role of Consent

Another issue with social contract theory is the concept of consent. Proponents of the theory argue that individuals must consent to be governed by their government. However, critics argue that consent cannot be given freely when there are limited options available.

For example, if an individual lives in a country with only one political party or leader, they may feel like they have no choice but to accept the government’s rule. In such a case, it would be difficult to argue that they gave their consent freely.

Objection 2: Social Contract Theory Does Not Account for Historical Injustices

Another significant objection to social contract theory is that it does not account for historical injustices. Advocates for this criticism point out that many governments were formed through violent means such as colonialism or conquest.

As a result, individuals living in these societies did not willingly enter into any hypothetical social contract. They were forced to accept the government’s rule through violence or coercion.

Additionally, social contract theory fails to account for the fact that some groups may be excluded from the benefits of society. This could include marginalized groups such as women, racial minorities, and those with disabilities. These groups may not receive the same protection and benefits from their government as others, even though they are expected to follow the same laws.


In conclusion, while social contract theory has been influential in shaping our understanding of how societies are formed and maintained, it is not without its criticisms. The two primary objections to this theory are its unrealistic assumptions and failure to account for historical injustices and power imbalances within society. By recognizing these objections, we can have a more nuanced understanding of how governments operate and make informed decisions about how we want our societies to function.