What Are the Two Main Points of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?


Vincent White

Charles Darwin is a prominent figure in the scientific community, known for his groundbreaking theories on evolution. His work has had a profound impact on our understanding of the natural world and continues to influence scientific research today. In this article, we will explore the two main points of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

The Theory of Natural Selection

The first point of Darwin’s theory of evolution is the concept of natural selection. This is the idea that organisms with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without these traits. Over time, this leads to the gradual change and adaptation of species, as advantageous traits become more common in a population.

How Does Natural Selection Work?

Natural selection occurs through a process known as “survival of the fittest.” Organisms that are better suited to their environment have a greater chance of surviving and passing on their genes to their offspring.

For example, imagine a population of birds with different beak sizes. If the environment has large seeds that require a larger beak to crack open, birds with larger beaks will have an advantage over those with smaller beaks. As a result, over time, the population will evolve to have more individuals with larger beaks.

Evidence for Natural Selection

There is abundant evidence for natural selection in nature. One well-known example is the peppered moth during England’s Industrial Revolution.

Before factories darkened the trees with soot, most moths were light-colored and easily camouflaged against light tree bark. However, as pollution darkened trees, darker colored moths became more visible predators couldn’t see them as easily – these darker moths were now favored by natural selection.

The Theory of Common Descent

The second point of Darwin’s theory is the idea that all living organisms share common ancestry or descent from earlier species. This means that all life forms on earth, including humans, evolved from a single common ancestor billions of years ago.

How Does Common Descent Work?

Common descent is based on the principle that all living organisms share certain genetic and biological similarities. These similarities can be seen in the DNA sequences of different species, as well as in their physical and behavioral traits. For example, humans and chimpanzees share about 99% of their DNA, indicating a close evolutionary relationship.

Evidence for Common Descent

There is a wealth of evidence supporting the theory of common descent. One example is the fossil record, which shows a gradual progression of species over time. Additionally, comparative anatomy – studying the structure of different organisms – reveals many commonalities between species that suggest they evolved from a common ancestor.


In conclusion, Darwin’s theory of evolution outlines two main points: natural selection and common descent. Natural selection explains how advantageous traits become more prevalent in a population over time while common descent suggests that all living organisms are descended from a single common ancestor. Together, these two concepts provide powerful explanations for the diversity of life on earth and continue to shape our understanding of biology today.