Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, problem-solving, and language. It is the study of how people think, learn, remember, and process information. In this article, we’ll explore the main concepts of cognitive psychology.


Perception is the process of interpreting sensory information to make sense of the world around us. It involves organizing and interpreting sensory input from our environment. Perception can be influenced by many factors such as our past experiences, expectations, and culture.


Attention is the ability to focus on specific stimuli in our environment while ignoring others. Attention plays a crucial role in our daily lives as it helps us to select important information from the environment.


Memory refers to the ability to store and retrieve information over time. There are three main stages of memory: encoding (the process of acquiring information), storage (the process of retaining information), and retrieval (the process of accessing stored information).

Working Memory

Working memory refers to our ability to hold onto a limited amount of information in an active state for a short period of time. It plays an essential role in problem-solving and decision-making.


Problem-solving is the process of finding solutions to complex problems. It involves identifying problems, generating possible solutions, evaluating those solutions, and selecting the best one.


Language is a complex system that allows us to communicate with others using symbols, sounds, or gestures. Cognitive psychologists study language acquisition and processing to better understand how we learn language and how it influences our thoughts.

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive processes refer to mental activities involved in thinking, such as reasoning, decision-making, and problem-solving. These processes are essential for our daily lives and help us to navigate the world around us.


Meta-cognition refers to our ability to think about our own thinking. It includes knowledge about our own cognitive processes, such as our strengths and weaknesses, and how we can improve our thinking.


In conclusion, cognitive psychology is a fascinating field that explores how we think, learn, remember, and process information. By understanding the main concepts of cognitive psychology, we can gain insights into how our minds work and how we can improve our cognitive processes.