Charvaka, also known as Lokayata, is an ancient Indian school of philosophy that is primarily concerned with the study of metaphysics. Charvaka metaphysics is characterized by its emphasis on materialism and rejection of spiritualism and supernaturalism. In this article, we will explore the features of Charvaka metaphysics in detail.


One of the primary features of Charvaka metaphysics is its materialistic worldview. Charvaka believes that everything in the universe, including consciousness and mind, can be explained in terms of physical matter. According to this school of thought, material objects are the only reality, and there is no existence beyond them.

Emphasis on Sensory Perception

Charvaka puts a great deal of emphasis on sensory perception as a means to gain knowledge about the world. According to this philosophy, our senses are the only reliable sources of information about reality. Therefore, anything that cannot be perceived through our senses does not exist.

Rejection of Supernaturalism

Charvaka rejects any notion of supernaturalism or divine intervention in human affairs. This school of thought states that all religious beliefs are mere superstitions created by people to explain phenomena they cannot understand or control.

Atheistic Beliefs

Another significant feature of Charvaka metaphysics is its atheistic beliefs. This philosophy denies the existence of any divine entity or higher power that governs the universe. Instead, it believes that everything in the universe operates according to natural laws and principles.

Ethical Relativism

Charvaka advocates ethical relativism, which means that moral values are subjective and vary from person to person based on their individual preferences and desires. This philosophy rejects any notion of absolute moral standards or universal ethical principles.

Critical Thinking

Charvaka encourages critical thinking and rational inquiry as a means to gain knowledge and understanding of the world. This school of thought believes that blind faith and dogmatic beliefs hinder intellectual progress and prevent people from discovering the truth.


In conclusion, Charvaka metaphysics is a unique philosophical system that emphasizes materialism, sensory perception, atheism, ethical relativism, and critical thinking. While some of its ideas may seem radical or controversial, Charvaka’s emphasis on empirical evidence and rational inquiry has influenced modern scientific thinking in many ways.