Existentialism is a philosophical movement that emphasizes individual freedom, choice, and responsibility. It emerged in the 20th century, and its proponents sought to explore the meaning of human existence in a post-World War II world that was marked by uncertainty, anxiety, and despair. While existentialism has had a profound impact on literature, art, and psychology, it also raises significant ethical questions that are worth exploring.

What is Existentialism?

At its core, existentialism is concerned with the question of meaning. It posits that humans are unique creatures who must create their own meaning in life because there is no inherent or objective meaning to be found. Existentialists argue that individuals must confront the absurdity of existence without any external guidance or authority to rely on.

This emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility has led some existentialists to reject traditional notions of morality and ethics. They argue that ethical standards cannot be imposed externally but must be chosen by individuals themselves.

Ethical Implications of Existentialism

One significant ethical implication of existentialism is the rejection of moral absolutes. Existentialists argue that traditional moral codes are meaningless because they are imposed from outside rather than chosen freely by individuals. They suggest that ethics must be based on each individual’s subjective experience rather than objective standards.

This idea challenges many traditional ethical systems that rely on religious or cultural norms as a foundation for morality. Instead, existentialists suggest that moral decisions should be based on personal authenticity and integrity rather than adherence to external codes.

Another key ethical implication of existentialism is the emphasis on personal responsibility. Existentialists believe that individuals have complete control over their lives and must accept responsibility for their actions. This means accepting both the good and the bad consequences of our choices without blaming external factors or circumstances.

This emphasis on personal responsibility can be empowering but also challenging as it places a heavy burden on individuals to make choices that align with their values and beliefs. It also raises questions about how to hold individuals accountable for their actions without relying on external standards of morality.


Existentialism offers a unique perspective on ethics that challenges traditional notions of morality and responsibility. While its emphasis on individual freedom and choice can be empowering, it also raises significant ethical questions about the nature of moral decision-making and accountability.

By rejecting external moral codes and emphasizing personal responsibility, existentialism offers a radical shift in the way we think about ethics. It forces us to consider what it means to be truly authentic and responsible for our lives, even when faced with uncertainty or adversity.

If you’re interested in learning more about existentialism’s ethical implications, there are many books and resources available that explore this fascinating topic in greater detail.