Social science is a vast field that encompasses various disciplines such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and political science. The primary purpose of social science is to understand human behavior and the social structures that govern it.

The theories developed by social scientists are an attempt to explain the complex nature of society and its functioning. In this article, we will explore the components of social science theory.

What is a Social Science Theory?

A social science theory is a set of ideas and concepts that attempts to explain human behavior and the social structures that govern it. It is a systematic way of understanding how society works and why people behave the way they do. Social science theories are based on empirical research, observations, experiments, and statistical analysis.

Components of Social Science Theory

There are several components of social science theory that make it an effective tool for understanding human behavior. Let’s explore these components in detail:


Concepts are the building blocks of social science theory. They are abstract ideas or mental constructs that represent something in the real world.

Concepts help us to simplify complex phenomena and make them easier to understand. For example, concepts such as ‘power,’ ‘status,’ ‘culture,’ ‘identity,’ and ‘gender’ are essential for understanding various aspects of society.


Variables are measurable characteristics or attributes that change over time or across different situations. They help us to test hypotheses and determine cause-and-effect relationships between different concepts. For example, in a study on the effects of education on income levels, education would be the independent variable while income would be the dependent variable.


A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about what we expect to find in our research based on existing knowledge or theories. Hypotheses help us to test our assumptions about how different variables are related to each other. For example, a hypothesis might suggest that there is a positive relationship between education and income levels.


Assumptions are underlying beliefs or values that shape social science theory. They are often implicit and hidden but can influence the way that researchers frame their research questions, choose their methods, and interpret their findings. For example, an assumption in feminist theory might be that gender inequality is a pervasive problem in society.


A model is a simplified representation of a real-world phenomenon or process. Models help us to understand complex relationships between different variables by breaking them down into more manageable components. For example, the ecological model is a framework for understanding how different levels of society (individual, community, societal) interact with each other to influence health outcomes.


In conclusion, social science theory is an essential tool for understanding human behavior and the social structures that govern it. The components of social science theory – concepts, variables, hypotheses, assumptions, and models – work together to provide a comprehensive understanding of complex phenomena. By using these components effectively, social scientists can continue to develop theories that help us make sense of the world around us.