Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that focuses on the fundamental nature of reality, existence, and the universe. It is concerned with questions that go beyond the physical world.

Metaphysics attempts to answer some of the most profound and fundamental questions about our existence, such as “What is reality?” and “What is the nature of existence?”. In this article, we will explore some of the central questions of metaphysics.

What is Reality?

One of the most fundamental questions in metaphysics is “What is reality?”. This question has puzzled philosophers for centuries. Some philosophers argue that reality is objective and independent of our perception, while others suggest that it is subjective and dependent on our perception.

Objective Reality

According to proponents of objective reality, there exists a world outside of our perception that exists independently. This view argues that objects have properties regardless of whether they are observed or not. For example, a tree would still exist even if no one was around to observe it.

Subjective Reality

In contrast to objective reality, proponents of subjective reality argue that reality depends on our perception. They contend that objects only exist as they are perceived by us. For instance, a tree would not exist if no one was around to perceive it.

What is Existence?

Another central question in metaphysics concerns existence itself. Philosophers have long debated whether existence can be defined or understood.


One view on this issue is essentialism, which suggests that things have an essence or defining characteristic that makes them what they are. According to essentialism, everything has an inherent nature or essence that defines its existence.


On the other hand, existentialists believe that existence precedes essence. They argue that there is no inherent nature or essence to things and that we create our own essence through our actions and choices.

What is Time?

Time is another central question in metaphysics. It is a fundamental aspect of our experience, but its nature has long been debated by philosophers.


Presentism is the view that only the present moment exists. According to this view, the past and future do not exist in any meaningful sense.


Eternalists, in contrast, argue that past, present, and future all exist equally. They suggest that time is like a block where everything exists simultaneously.


Metaphysics deals with some of the most profound and fundamental questions about our existence. It attempts to answer questions such as “What is reality? “, “What is existence?

“, and “What is time?”. The answers to these questions are not straightforward, and different philosophers hold different views. Nonetheless, exploring these questions can help us gain a deeper understanding of ourselves and our place in the world.