What Are the Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory?

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a psychological perspective that focuses on how individuals learn and develop through their interactions with their environment. Developed by Albert Bandura in the 1970s, SCT emphasizes the importance of observational learning, self-efficacy, and reciprocal determinism in shaping human behavior. To better understand this theory, let’s explore its basic assumptions:

Observational Learning

SCT posits that people learn by observing others. This process involves not only observing the behavior itself but also paying attention to the consequences of that behavior.

In other words, individuals are more likely to imitate behaviors they have seen being rewarded rather than punished. By observing others and understanding the outcomes of their actions, people can acquire new knowledge and skills.


Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in their ability to successfully accomplish a particular task or achieve a desired outcome. According to SCT, self-efficacy plays a crucial role in motivation and behavior.

People with high self-efficacy are more likely to set challenging goals, persist in the face of obstacles, and recover quickly from failures. On the other hand, those with low self-efficacy may avoid taking risks or engaging in new activities.

Reciprocal Determinism

SCT proposes that human behavior is influenced by a constant interaction between personal factors (such as thoughts, beliefs, and emotions), environmental factors (such as social norms and physical surroundings), and behavioral factors. This concept is known as reciprocal determinism.

Personal Factors: Our thoughts, beliefs, and expectations shape how we perceive our environment and influence our behavior.

Environmental Factors: The social, cultural, and physical contexts in which we live also impact our behavior. For example, social norms and peer influence can shape how we act in certain situations.

Behavioral Factors: Our actions not only reflect our thoughts and beliefs but also have the power to influence our environment. By engaging in certain behaviors, we can modify the social or physical aspects of our surroundings.

Vicarious Reinforcement

SCT suggests that individuals do not need to directly experience reinforcement or punishment to learn from it. Instead, they can learn by observing others being rewarded or punished for their behavior.

This process is called vicarious reinforcement. By witnessing the consequences others face, individuals can make judgments about whether to imitate a particular behavior or refrain from it.


SCT emphasizes that individuals are active agents in their own development and have the ability to regulate their own behavior. Self-regulation involves setting goals, monitoring one’s progress, and employing strategies to achieve desired outcomes. This process requires self-reflection, self-control, and self-reinforcement.


Social Cognitive Theory is based on several key assumptions that highlight the importance of observational learning, self-efficacy, reciprocal determinism, vicarious reinforcement, and self-regulation. By understanding these assumptions, we can gain insight into how individuals learn and develop within their social contexts.

By incorporating these HTML styling elements such as bold text (), underlined text (), lists (


  • ), and subheaders (


    , etc.), this article becomes visually engaging and organized for readers.