Phenomenology is a philosophical approach that focuses on the study of subjective experiences. It aims to understand the essence of human consciousness and how we perceive the world around us. In this article, we will explore the three methods in phenomenology that are used to achieve this understanding.
The Three Methods in Phenomenology
The three methods in phenomenology are as follows:
- Eidetic Reduction
- Intentional Analysis
Eidetic reduction is a method used by phenomenologists to get to the essence of an object or experience. This method involves focusing on the essential qualities of an object or experience, which are known as its “eidos”. By doing so, one can understand what makes something what it is, beyond its physical characteristics.
For example, if we were to study a chair using eidetic reduction, we would focus on its essential qualities such as its function (to be sat on), its shape (seat and backrest), and its material (wood). By understanding these essential qualities, we can gain a deeper understanding of what makes a chair a chair.
Bracketing is another method used by phenomenologists to understand subjective experiences. This method involves setting aside one’s preconceived notions and biases about an object or experience. By doing so, one can focus solely on the experience itself and how it is perceived.
For example, if we were to study the experience of love using bracketing, we would set aside any preconceived notions or biases about love and focus solely on the experience itself. This could involve examining our emotions, thoughts, and perceptions when we are in love without any external influences affecting our analysis.
Intentional analysis is a method used by phenomenologists to understand how we perceive the world around us. This method involves examining our intentions and how they shape our experiences. By understanding our intentions, we can gain a deeper understanding of how we perceive the world.
For example, if we were to study the experience of walking using intentional analysis, we would examine our intentions when walking (to get from one place to another) and how that shapes our experience (the feeling of movement, the sights and sounds around us).
In conclusion, phenomenology is a philosophical approach that aims to understand subjective experiences. The three methods in phenomenology – eidetic reduction, bracketing, and intentional analysis – help us achieve this understanding. By using these methods, we can gain a deeper understanding of what makes an object or experience what it is and how our intentions shape our perceptions of the world around us.