What Are the 3 Cell Theory States?


Diego Sanchez

The cell theory is a fundamental concept in biology that describes the basic unit of life. It states that all living organisms are composed of one or more cells, and that cells are the basic building blocks of life. There are three main states of the cell theory that we will discuss in this article.

State #1: All living things are made up of cells

This state is the foundation of the cell theory. It states that all living things, from the tiniest single-celled organism to the largest multi-cellular organism, are made up of one or more cells. This includes plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

The discovery of this state is credited to Robert Hooke in 1665 when he observed cork under a microscope and saw tiny compartments which he called “cells”. Later on, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek improved upon Hooke’s microscope and observed living microorganisms which provided strong evidence for this first state.

State #2: Cells are the basic unit of life

This state builds upon the first one by stating that cells are not just present in all living organisms but also serve as their fundamental units. In other words, cells are the smallest units capable of carrying out all life processes including metabolism, growth, and reproduction.

Cells come in different shapes and sizes but they all share certain features such as a plasma membrane that separates them from their environment, a nucleus or nucleoid containing genetic material (DNA), and cytoplasm containing various organelles including mitochondria for energy production and ribosomes for protein synthesis.

State #3: Cells arise from pre-existing cells

This final state completes the cell theory by stating that new cells can only arise from pre-existing cells through a process called cell division. This means that every time a cell divides into two daughter cells during mitosis or meiosis, the genetic material and other cell components are passed down to the new cells.

This concept was first proposed by Rudolf Virchow in 1855, who famously stated “omnis cellula e cellula” or “every cell comes from a cell”. This statement is supported by scientific evidence such as the observation of bacterial growth and tissue regeneration in living organisms.


In summary, the three states of the cell theory provide a framework for understanding the basic unit of life. They state that all living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and new cells arise from pre-existing cells. By understanding these concepts, we can appreciate the complexity and diversity of life on Earth while also recognizing its underlying unity at the cellular level.