What Are Main Factors in Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution?


Martha Robinson

In the field of biology, the theory of evolution is one of the most significant and widely studied concepts. The modern synthetic theory of evolution, also known as the neo-Darwinian theory, is currently the most accepted explanation for how species have evolved over time.

This theory combines Darwin’s concept of natural selection with modern genetics, providing a more comprehensive understanding of how evolution occurs. In this article, we will discuss the main factors that contribute to the modern synthetic theory of evolution.

Natural Selection

Natural selection is a fundamental component of the modern synthetic theory of evolution. This process refers to the fact that organisms with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and pass on their genes to their offspring than organisms with less favorable traits. Over time, this can lead to significant changes in a population’s genetic makeup.

Genetic Variation

Genetic variation is another crucial factor in evolutionary theory. This variation refers to differences in DNA sequences among individuals within a population or species.

These variations can occur through mutation or recombination during meiosis, leading to new alleles being introduced into a population’s gene pool. The greater the genetic variation within a population, the more potential there is for natural selection to occur.

Gene Flow

Gene flow refers to the movement of genes between populations through migration or interbreeding. It can introduce new alleles into a population and increase genetic diversity within that population.

Genetic Drift

Genetic drift is another factor that plays an essential role in evolutionary theory. Genetic drift refers to random fluctuations in allele frequencies within a population due to chance events such as natural disasters or random mating patterns.


Mutation is another critical component of evolutionary theory. Mutations refer to changes in an organism’s DNA sequence, which can create new alleles and contribute to genetic diversity within a population.


Adaptation is the process by which an organism becomes better suited to its environment. This can occur through natural selection, where advantageous traits become more prevalent within a population over time.


In conclusion, the modern synthetic theory of evolution combines several factors to explain how species have evolved over time. These factors include natural selection, genetic variation, gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and adaptation. By understanding these factors and how they contribute to evolution, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the world around us.