The Social Contract Theory is a philosophical concept that explores the origin and nature of society and government. It postulates that individuals voluntarily enter into an agreement, or social contract, to form a society and delegate certain powers to a governing authority.

This theory has been debated for centuries, with proponents arguing for its workability and critics questioning its feasibility. Let’s delve deeper into this theory and examine whether it is indeed workable.

What is the Social Contract Theory?

The Social Contract Theory traces its roots back to the works of philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. These thinkers proposed that in a state of nature, where there is no established government or law, individuals are free but face insecurity and conflict. To escape this state of chaos, they willingly agree to form a social contract.

According to the theory, individuals surrender some of their natural rights in exchange for protection and the benefits provided by society. This implies that people consent to be governed by an authority that represents and upholds their collective interests.

Benefits of the Social Contract

The Social Contract Theory offers several advantages:

Critiques of the Social Contract Theory

The workability of the Social Contract Theory has been subject to criticism:

1. Historical Accuracy

Some scholars argue that the theory’s foundation is flawed due to its reliance on a hypothetical state of nature. They claim that humans have always lived in societies, making it difficult to determine the true nature of a pre-social contract era.

2. Lack of Consent

Critics question whether individuals truly give their informed consent to be governed. They argue that people are born into existing social contracts without actively participating in their formation.

3. Power Imbalances

The Social Contract Theory assumes an equal distribution of power among individuals and the governing authority. However, critics argue that power imbalances can arise, leading to oppression and exploitation.

Is the Social Contract Theory Workable?

The workability of the Social Contract Theory depends on various factors:

In practice, achieving these conditions may present challenges. Nonetheless, many democratic societies today embrace elements of the Social Contract Theory as they strive for inclusive governance and citizen participation.


The Social Contract Theory offers a framework for understanding the relationship between individuals and the governing authority. While its workability may be subject to debate, it provides valuable insights into the foundations of society and government. By considering its principles, societies can strive towards creating more just, secure, and inclusive systems of governance.