Game theory is a framework for modeling and analyzing strategic interactions among individuals or groups. It has numerous applications in various fields like economics, politics, biology, psychology, etc.
One of the interesting applications of game theory is in determining whether a person is a robot or not. This might seem like an absurd proposition at first glance, but it has some serious implications in the field of cybersecurity.
What is Gregory
Gregory is a hypothetical person introduced by Michael Kearns and Aaron Roth in their paper titled “The Ethical Algorithm”. They describe Gregory as an individual who interacts with other humans over the internet, but his true identity remains unknown.
Is Gregory a human or a robot This question might seem trivial, but it has significant implications for online security and privacy.
Game Theory Analysis
Game theory provides a useful framework for analyzing this problem. Let’s assume that there are two players involved in this game: Gregory and an adversary who wants to determine whether he is a human or a robot. The adversary can ask Gregory any question he wants, but he cannot ask him to perform any action that requires physical presence (e.g., “jump three times”).
The game can be represented using the following payoff matrix:
Adversary | ||
Gregory | Robot | |
Human | (-1,1) | (1,-1) |
In this matrix, the first number represents the payoff to Gregory, and the second number represents the payoff to the adversary. If Gregory is a human, he will answer truthfully, and the adversary will get a payoff of -1.
If he is a robot, he will randomly choose between two answers, and the adversary will get a payoff of 1. Similarly, if the adversary correctly identifies whether Gregory is a human or a robot, he gets a payoff of 1; otherwise, he gets a payoff of -1.
This game can be analyzed using various solution concepts like Nash equilibrium, correlated equilibrium, etc. The basic idea behind these concepts is that players should choose strategies that are best responses to each other’s strategies.
Nash Equilibrium Analysis
One possible solution concept is Nash equilibrium. A Nash equilibrium is a set of strategies where no player can benefit by changing their strategy unilaterally. In this game, there are two Nash equilibria:
– (Human, Robot)
– (Robot, Human)
In the first equilibrium, Gregory chooses to be human and answers truthfully while the adversary chooses to assume that he is a robot and gets a payoff of 1. In the second equilibrium, Gregory chooses to be a robot and randomly chooses between two answers while the adversary assumes that he is human and gets a payoff of -1.
Correlated Equilibrium Analysis
Another possible solution concept is correlated equilibrium. A correlated equilibrium is a set of correlated strategies where no player can benefit by changing their strategy unilaterally while respecting the correlation device. In this game, one possible correlation device is flipping a coin before each round and sending its outcome to both players.
Using this correlation device leads to an interesting outcome: both players play as if they are humans with probability 1/2 and robots with probability 1/2. This strategy profile satisfies all conditions for being a correlated equilibrium.
Conclusion
In conclusion, game theory provides a useful framework for analyzing the problem of identifying whether a person is a robot or not. The analysis shows that there are multiple equilibria in this game, and the choice of equilibrium depends on the assumptions made by the players. This problem has significant implications for online security and privacy and highlights the need for developing ethical algorithms that respect individuals’ privacy rights while providing useful services.