How Does Cognitive Work in Psychology?


Vincent White

Cognition is the mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It involves various mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision making. Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies these mental processes.

The Cognitive Process

The cognitive process begins with perception, which is the process of interpreting sensory information from the environment. The information is received through our senses such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. We use our attention to focus on specific aspects of the environment that are relevant to us.

Once we have perceived information from the environment and focused our attention on it, we begin to process it in our memory. Memory is the ability to store and retrieve information over time. Our memory is divided into three types: sensory memory (brief storage of sensory information), short-term memory (temporary storage of information), and long-term memory (permanent storage of information).

Language and Cognition

Language is an essential part of cognition because it allows us to communicate with others and express our thoughts and ideas. Language involves various cognitive processes such as perception (listening or reading), comprehension (understanding what was said or written), production (speaking or writing), and acquisition (learning a new language).

Cognitive psychologists study how language affects cognition by examining various aspects such as how we understand ambiguous sentences or how we learn new words.

Problem Solving

Problem-solving is another important aspect of cognitive psychology. It involves using cognitive processes to find solutions to problems or challenges. Problem-solving involves several stages such as identifying the problem, generating possible solutions, evaluating those solutions, choosing a solution, implementing it, and monitoring its effectiveness.

Theories in Cognitive Psychology

There are several theories in cognitive psychology that explain how cognition works:

  • Information Processing Theory: This theory suggests that cognition works like a computer. Information is inputted, processed, and outputted.
  • Social Learning Theory: This theory suggests that learning occurs through observation and imitation of others’ behaviors.
  • Cognitive Neuroscience: This theory combines cognitive psychology with neuroscience to study the biological basis of cognition.

Cognitive Psychology in Real Life

Cognitive psychology has many practical applications in everyday life. For example, it has been used in education to develop effective learning strategies for students. It has also been used in the workplace to improve productivity and decision making.


In conclusion, cognitive psychology is an essential branch of psychology that helps us understand how our mental processes work. It involves various aspects such as perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision making. By studying cognition, we can improve our understanding of how we think and learn and apply that knowledge to real-life situations.