Music theory can be a daunting subject, especially for those who are just starting to learn it. One of the essential concepts in music theory is the normal form.

The normal form is a way to represent a chord or a set of pitches in the most concise and straightforward manner possible. In this article, we’ll dive into how to find the normal form in music theory.

## What is Normal Form?

Normal form is a way of representing chords or pitch sets that are transpositionally and/or inversionally equivalent. In simpler terms, it’s a way to write chords or pitch sets that have the same notes but arranged differently.

### Why Use Normal Form?

Normal form helps us compare different chord structures and understand their relationships better. It also makes it easier to recognize patterns and analyze music.

### How to Find Normal Form

To find the normal form of a chord or pitch set, follow these steps:

Step 1: Write down all the pitches in ascending order.

For example, suppose we have a C major chord (C-E-G). In that case, we will write down: C, E, G.

Step 2: Find the interval between each pitch and its lowest note.

In our example (C-E-G), we have:

• E – C = M3
• G – C = P5

Step 3: Rearrange the pitches so that the smallest interval comes first.

Since our smallest interval is P5 (between C and G), we’ll start with G:

• G – C = P5
• E – C = M3

Step 4: If there are two or more intervals with the same size, start with the lowest pitch.

Suppose we have a C7 chord (C-E-G-Bb). We’ll follow the same steps as above:

Step 1: C, E, G, Bb

Step 2:

• E – C = M3
• G – C= P5
• Bb – C = m7

Step 3: G, Bb, C, E

Step 4: Since we have two intervals of M3 (between G-Bb and between Bb-C), we start with the lowest pitch: Bb.

Therefore, the normal form of a C7 chord is Bb-C-E-G.

### In Conclusion

Finding the normal form of a chord or pitch set is an essential skill for any musician or music theorist. It helps us analyze music and recognize patterns.

Remember to follow the steps outlined above: write down all pitches in ascending order, find the interval between each pitch and its lowest note, rearrange pitches so that the smallest interval comes first, and if there are two or more intervals with the same size, start with the lowest pitch. With practice, you’ll become proficient in finding normal forms in no time!