Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. It deals with questions such as “What is knowledge?”, “How do we acquire knowledge?”, and “What separates knowledge from mere belief?” In this article, we will explore the question of how we know what is true in epistemology.

What is Truth?

Truth is a concept that has been debated by philosophers for centuries. Some argue that truth is objective and exists independently of human thought or perception. Others argue that truth is subjective and dependent on context, perspective, and interpretation.

Regardless of one’s stance on the nature of truth, it’s clear that in order to know what is true, we must have some way of determining it.

Theories of Knowledge

There are several theories of knowledge that attempt to explain how we acquire knowledge and determine what is true.

One such theory is empiricism, which holds that all knowledge comes from sensory experience. According to this view, we can only know what we can observe through our senses. This means that anything beyond our sensory experience cannot be known with certainty.

Another theory of knowledge is rationalism, which holds that some knowledge can be attained through reason alone. Proponents of this view argue that there are certain truths that are self-evident and do not require empirical evidence.

Methods for Determining Truth

Regardless of one’s theoretical stance on the nature of knowledge, there are several methods for determining truth.

One such method is the scientific method, which involves making observations, formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments to test those hypotheses, and analyzing the results. This method relies heavily on empirical evidence and has been successful in advancing our understanding of the natural world.

Another method for determining truth is logic and reasoning. By examining premises and drawing conclusions based on those premises using deductive reasoning or induction reasoning, one can arrive at conclusions that are considered true.

Challenges to Knowing What is True

Despite the various methods for determining truth, there are several challenges to knowing what is true.

One challenge is the problem of induction, which holds that we cannot know with certainty that a generalization based on past observations will hold true in the future. For example, just because all observed swans are white does not mean that all swans are white.

Another challenge to knowing what is true is skepticism, which holds that knowledge claims should be met with doubt and scrutiny. This view argues that we can never know anything with absolute certainty and that all knowledge claims should be subject to continual questioning and evaluation.


In conclusion, determining what is true is a complex endeavor. It requires us to grapple with questions about the nature of truth, the methods for acquiring knowledge, and the challenges to knowing what is true. By engaging in rigorous inquiry and critical thinking, we can arrive at a deeper understanding of what it means to know what is true in epistemology.