Charles Darwin is a name that is synonymous with the theory of evolution. He is known for his groundbreaking work in the field of biology and natural sciences.

His book, “On the Origin of Species,” published in 1859, introduced the world to the concept of evolution through natural selection. But how did Darwin come up with this revolutionary idea? Let’s take a closer look.

The Early Years

Charles Darwin was born in 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. He was the fifth child of Robert and Susannah Darwin. Robert was a prominent physician and financier, while Susannah was the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, a famous pottery manufacturer.

As a child, Darwin showed a keen interest in nature and spent much of his time exploring the countryside around his home. He collected specimens of plants and animals and kept detailed records of his observations.


Darwin attended school at Shrewsbury School, where he studied classics, mathematics, and science. In 1825, he enrolled at Edinburgh University to study medicine but found that he had no interest in it.

In 1828, Darwin transferred to Christ’s College at Cambridge University to study theology and natural sciences. At Cambridge, he became friends with John Stevens Henslow, a botanist who would have a significant influence on his career.

The Voyage of the Beagle

In 1831, Henslow recommended Darwin for the position of naturalist on HMS Beagle’s five-year voyage around the world. During this voyage, which lasted until 1836, Darwin collected specimens of plants and animals from South America, Australia, New Zealand, and other places.

Darwin’s observations during this voyage would form the basis for many of his later theories on evolution. He noted that different species of animals were adapted to their environments in different ways and that the fossils he found showed that many species had become extinct over time.

The Theory of Evolution

After returning from his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin spent many years studying his specimens and reflecting on his observations. In 1838, he read Thomas Malthus’s “An Essay on the Principle of Population,” which argued that populations would grow faster than their food supply, leading to competition for resources.

This idea resonated with Darwin, who realized that it could explain why some species were more successful than others. He began to develop his theory of evolution through natural selection, which proposed that organisms with advantageous traits would be more likely to survive and reproduce.

It would take Darwin another 20 years to fully develop and publish his theory of evolution. In 1859, he finally published “On the Origin of Species,” which presented his ideas to the world.


Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection was a groundbreaking idea that revolutionized our understanding of the natural world. His observations during his voyage on the Beagle and his years of study and reflection led him to this revolutionary idea.

Today, Darwin is remembered as one of the most significant figures in science history, whose work has had a profound impact on our understanding of biology and the natural world.