Behaviourism is a main theory that emerged in the early 20th century and was developed by psychologists such as John Watson and B.F. Skinner. Behaviourists believe that all behavior can be explained through observable stimuli and responses, without the need for any internal mental processes or subjective experiences.
According to behaviourists, behavior is shaped by the environment through a process called conditioning. There are two types of conditioning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning involves learning by association, where a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response. Operant conditioning involves learning through consequences, where behaviors are reinforced or punished depending on their outcomes.
One of the key assumptions of behaviourism is that all behavior can be changed through manipulation of environmental factors such as rewards or punishments. Behaviourists also believe that subjective experiences such as emotions or thoughts cannot be studied scientifically because they are not directly observable.